Intrinsic motivation and grading’s’ detrimental effects on self-motivated learning

In this final blog I will evaluate intrinsic motivation and how blog writing have increased my motivation for active learning however also argue that grades as external rewards are detrimental for this intrinsically motivated behaviour.

 

Schatner (2011) identified that intrinsic motivation is what’s coming from within the individual, something we do out of our own interest or enjoyment. I have found that when looking for material myself I experience a higher satisfaction by learning the material, as explained by Deci et al. (1999) that intrinsically motivated student would experience higher engagement with a task and an overall better psychological well-being.

 

Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation can affect motivation and self-esteem both positively and negatively and behaviours no longer externally rewarded will cease to occur (Benabou & Tirole 2003). It’s been supported that as external reward decreases the intrinsic motivation increases. Additionally, with an increasing external reward the overall task quality performance is decreased to noticeable levels (Fehr & Falk, 1999; Fehr & Schmidt, 2000; Gneezy & Rustichini, 2000; Deci, 1975). These findings would suggest that motivation for blog writing for modules would increase if they were less heavily weighted as the external reward is decreased.

 

            As extrinsic motivation is focused on the reward rather then the work, it can damage intrinsic motivation. The problem with expecting external rewards for behaviour is that eventually the reward will disappear, as there is no one to give you that reward for learning. As stated in above paragraphs, a none-externally rewarding behaviour, when so conditioned, will decrease and cease over time. This suggests that because blog writing is rewarded with high marks, the external reward is highly valued and when that reward can no longer be obtained – the intrinsic motivation for learning will cease in time.

 

Conclusively, on my part blog writing have increased my intrinsic motivation for learning and for general areas within psychology and I will keep writing for my blog even after university because of the satisfaction it gives me.

 

 

References

Benabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2003). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Review of Economic Studies, 70(3), 489-520.

Deci, E. (1975) Intrinsic Motivation (New York: Plenum Press).

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). SelfDetermination. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627–668.

Fehr, E. & Falk, A. (1999). Wage Rigidity in a Competitive Incomplete Contract Market, Journal of Political Economy, 107(1), 106–134.

 Fehr, E. & Schmidt, K. (2000), Fairness, Incentives, and Contractual Choices, European Economic Review, 44 (4–6), 1057–1068

 Gneezy, U. & Rustichini, A. (2000a). A Fine is a Price , Journal of Legal Studies, 29 (1) 1–17.

 Schater, D. (2011). PSYCHOLOGY. United States of America: Catherine Woods. p. 325

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You Feel What You Eat – How eating behaviour affects emotions

              The awareness of how our eating behaviour affects our bodies and mental health is on the rise as research within the field is expanding as well as increased efforts to inform the general population about eating habits, nutrition and its effects on the body and mind. Our own school of psychology at Bangor University has even designed their own program, called Food Dudes, to encourage schoolchildren to eat more fruit and vegetables to promote a healthier lifestyle.

             Commonly known is that what you eat can cause heart disease, diabetes, obesity and other physical problems. What’s not often considered and what research now has begun to look deeper into is the importance of our diet on our mental health and the factors involved for different psychological conditions, such as depression (Cabrera et al. 2007; Mattar et al. 2011). This blog will evaluate and criticize different types of protein sources and how it affects your brain and emotions.  

            There are many ways in which what you eat affects you, but on a fundamental level – what you eat affects your neurotransmitters and thereby hormones which in turn affects your mood, energy levels and motivation (Canetti et al. 2002). The nutrient most of us are aware of is protein and that it is necessary for muscle maintenance and weight control as it controls the hunger effect (Batterham et al. 2002).  What we don’t know is that protein is crucial in the uptake of Tyrosine and Tryptophan, which is responsible for the production of Dopamine, Norepinephrine and Serotonin in the brain (Choi et al. 1997; Schaechter & Wurtman RJ, 1990).

            Protein can be found in most animal products however nutrients from plants such as beans and soy may be equally sufficient as a source of protein. Friedman and Brandon (2001) reviews for the benefits of soy-products being lowered fat gain, lower serum cholesterol and glucose levels in diabetic rats. This suggests that soy products can be used as a means to treat obesity as it’s a good source of protein with low fat rate which makes it beneficial during energy-restricted diets. Criticism to their studies is that their research was mainly done on rats; however they acknowledge this and assess the necessity of further research on humans.  Opposing factors to the use of soy is the risk of prostate or breast cancer and hormonal imbalance; though these are mostly animal studies and point out that we don’t know how consumption will affect humans (Setchell et al. 2011).  There are some cases where men consuming heavy amounts of soy can experience gynecomastia reduced sexual desire and impotence due to the female plants sex hormone phytoestrogen (Thornton, 2009). However, this may only have been one contributing factor as there is low evidence for plant hormones affecting either males or females (Kurzer, 2002; Weber et al. 2001).

           In their study, Choi et al. (1997) found that all sources of protein tested (milk, soy and gluten) raised dopamine and norepinephrine levels as expected. Interestingly they discovered that lactalbumin (found in milk) increased the serotonin levels when zein (wheat) and casein (eggs, cheese), did not. It seems that soy itself does not raise serotonin levels as it does not contain lactalbumin; however it does contain complex carbohydrates that will increase levels of tryptophan which cares for this effect (Schaechter & Wurtman RJ, 1990).

            Different types of protein seem to be affecting the body differently because of its molecular compounds, the way these affect our mood can be one underlying factor to depression as your diet may be limiting you uptake of necessary nutrients required to feel good. Studies carried out on elderly and anorexia nervosa patients shows that malnutrition is one contributing factor to depression (Cabrera et al.2007; Smoliner et al. 2009; Wade et al. 2000). Because of proteins properties of increasing levels of “feel good” hormones we can conclude that whenever we are feelings down and have cravings for unhealthy food – what our body really is telling us is to eat protein to restore the hormonal balance. Our body knows what it needs and signals it to our brain, our body is best at taking care of itself, we must simply learn to listen to it in order to increase well-being.

 

 

References.

Axelson, M., Sjövall, J., Gustafsson, B. E., & Setchell, K. D. R. (1984). Soya–a dietary source of the non-steroidal oestrogen equol in man and animals. Journal of endocrinology, 102(1), 49-56.

Batterham, R. L., Cowley, M. A., Small, C. J., Herzog, H., Cohen, M. A., Dakin, C. L., Wren. A., M., Brynes, A. E., Low, M. J., Ghatei, M. A., Cone, R.D.  & Bloom, S. R. (2002). Gut hormone PYY3-36 physiologically inhibits food intake. Nature, 418(6898), 650-654.

Choi, D. S., Ward, S. J., Messaddeq, N., Launay, J. M., & Maroteaux, L. (1997). 5-HT2B receptor-mediated serotonin morphogenetic functions in mouse cranial neural crest and myocardiac cells. Development, 124(9), 1745-1755.

 Cabrera, M. A. S., Mesas, A. E., Garcia, A. R. L., & de Andrade, S. M. (2007). Malnutrition and depression among community-dwelling elderly people. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 8(9), 582-584.

 Canetti, L., Bachar, E., & Berry, E. M. (2002). Food and emotion. Behavioural processes, 60(2), 157-164.

Friedman, M., & Brandon, D. L. (2001). Nutritional and health benefits of soy proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(3), 1069-1086.

 Han, K. K., Soares Jr, J. M., Haidar, M. A., Rodrigues de Lima, G., & Baracat, E. C. (2002). Benefits of soy isoflavone therapeutic regimen on menopausal symptoms. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 99(3), 389-394.

Mattar, L., Huas, C., Duclos, J., Apfel, A., & Godart, N. (2011). Relationship between malnutrition and depression or anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa: A critical review of the literature. Journal of affective disorders, 132(3), 311-318.

Sacks, F. M., Bray, G. A., Carey, V. J., Smith, S. R., Ryan, D. H., Anton, S. D., … & Williamson, D. A. (2009). Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(9), 859-873. Christensen, L. (1993). Effects of eating behavior on mood: a review of the literature. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 14(2), 171-183.

Setchell, K. D., Brown, N. M., Zhao, X., Lindley, S. L., Heubi, J. E., King, E. C., & Messina, M. J. (2011). Soy isoflavone phase II metabolism differs between rodents and humans: implications for the effect on breast cancer risk. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 94(5), 1284-1294.

Smoliner, C., Norman, K., Wagner, K. H., Hartig, W., Lochs, H., & Pirlich, M. (2009). Malnutrition and depression in the institutionalised elderly. British Journal of Nutrition, 102(11), 1663.

Schaechter, J. D., & Wurtman, R. J. (1990). Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels. Brain research, 532(1), 203-210.

Wade, T. D., Bulik, C. M., Neale, M., & Kendler, K. S. (2000). Anorexia nervosa and major depression: shared genetic and environmental risk factors. American Journal of psychiatry, 157(3), 469-471.

Weber,K,S., Setchell, K, D., Stocco, D, M., Lephart, E, D. (2001). Dietary soy-phytoestrogens decrease testosterone levels and prostate weight without altering LH, prostate 5alpha-reductase or testicular steroid genic acute regulatory peptide levels in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Endocrinol. 170(3), 591-9. doi: 10.1677/joe.0.1700591.

Wilkinson, S. B., Tarnopolsky, M. A., MacDonald, M. J., MacDonald, J. R., Armstrong, D., & Phillips, S. M. (2007). Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 85(4), 1031-1040.